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The combination of components that form the underlying structure of a wine.


Spanish term used to define both the residue from the grape after pressing, and a type of marc brandy produced in Galicia and other parts of Northern Spain.


Heating process in which classic Madeira wines are kept at a constant temperature of 45-50ºC (113-122ºF) inside wineries for a period of 90 days.


An element of the bouquet of fine, aged wines. The penetrating aroma suggests freshness and menthol nuances.


Secondary aroma of many young wines.


Wine that barely reaches the minimum required quality level.

Beaumé degree

Unit of measurement used in wineries to determine the sugar content of a must in terms of its density. Measurement of sweetness.


A term for a full-bodied, powerful wine with complex nuances and well-defined components.

Biological ageing

A process typical of the wines of western Andalusia, although it is also used in areas such as Rueda. It is a complex process which depends on the action of yeasts. Synonyms: crianza en flor, crianza bajo velo.


Tartaric acid salts. Potassium bitartrate is an important natural component of wine that can be precipitated as a result of the action of cold temperatures and alcohol, forming white crystals heavier than the wine. Together with neutral lime tartrate, they are known as wine tartrates, which are problematic components that can affect the appearance of a wine.


Used to define a sharp wine that is also lively and astringent.


One of the four flavours. It is detected by the back of the tongue and is reminiscent of quinine sulphate. It is distinct from tannic or metallic tastes.


Slightly bitter but pleasant taste. This is a descriptive term implying a defect but the term in some cases may be positive.


Wine which has an unpleasant tactile sensation reminiscent of dust or fine sand diluted in liquid.

Black (or red) grape

Type of grape, including various with anthocyan pigments in the grape skins.

Black pepper

Aroma that appears in some aged wines.


Primary aromatic component of the Tempranillo grape.


Wine lacking in freshness due to lack of acidity. Synonym: plano.


Winery or wine cellar. Olor a bodega (SMELLING LIKE A BODEGA). Spanish expression used to describe a wine that contains hints of generic defects such as humidity and lack of cleanliness.


The term for the sense of a wine's consistency in the mouth. Dry extract of wine. It is a quality that is highly rated in fine wines.

Bordeaux cask

Barrel used to age Bordeaux wine whose use has now spread to many other wine-producing areas (Rioja, Ribera del Duero, Navarra, Valdepeñas, etc.). Its capacity is 220-225 litres.


A microscopic fungus (its full scientific name is botrytis cinerea) responsible for a grey mould affecting grapes, whose action is very complex and damaging in the majority of cases. In certain varieties, however, it causes the noble rot that leads to highly valued special wines. It produces a very vigorous oxidising agent enzyme called laccase.


Glass bottles for wine generally vary from 3/8 litre to 2 litres. The term is also used for ageing wine in an airtight environment by placing the wine, directly or after ageing, in sealed glass bottles. The wine becomes more refined and rounded and acquires a more complex bouquet.


See Corcho.


The combination of primary aromas discerned during tasting an aged wine in ideal condition.


En rama: new wine that has not yet been clarified. Unfiltered wine.


Wine affected by one of the so-called quiebras which produce severe clouding.


The Spanish name for natural sparkling wine containing less than 15 grams of sugar per litre. When the sugar content does not exceed 6 grams per litre, the term extra brut may appear on the label. Brut natural or brut nature sparkling wines are wines sold without the addition of dosage or shipping wine.




Oak barrel with the capacity to hold 550-600 litres, used in particular to age sherry wines. (WINESKIN) Small portable bottle made from goatskin and waterproofed with tar, with a nozzle, used to carry and drink wine.

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